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广东省人民政府首页  >  要闻动态  >  广东要闻

国企利润上缴比例提高5%

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2018年10月23日 08:34:21
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(近)(日)(,辽)(宁)(省)(财)(政)(厅)(发)(布)(的)(《关)(于)(进)(一)(步)(提)(高)(辽)(宁)(省)(省)(属)(企)(业)(国)(有)(资)(本)(收)(益)(收)(取)(比)(例)(的)(通)(知)(》称)(,从)(今)(年)(起)(,适)(当)(提)(高)(省)(属)(企)(业)(国)(有)(资)(本)(收)(益)(收)(取)(比)(例)(。辽)(宁)(省)(的)(国)(有)(独)(资)(企)(业)(应)(缴)(利)(润)(收)(取)(比)(例)(在)(现)(有)(基)(础)(上)(提)(高)(5个)(百)(分)(点)(,收)(取)(比)(例)(上)(调)(后)(,按)(照)(4个)(大)(类)(执)(行)(。  十)(八)(届)(三)(中)(全)(会)(决)(定)(提)(出)(提)(高)(国)(有)(资)(本)(收)(益)(上)(缴)(公)(共)(财)(政)(比)(例)(,2020年)(提)(到)(30%,更)(多)(用)(于)(保)(障)(和)(改)(善)(民)(生)(。去)(年)(,财)(政)(部)(又)(发)(布)(《关)(于)(进)(一)(步)(提)(高)(中)(央)(企)(业)(国)(有)(资)(本)(收)(益)(收)(取)(比)(例)(的)(通)(知)(》,将)(国)(有)(独)(资)(企)(业)(应)(缴)(利)(润)(收)(取)(比)(例)(在)(现)(有)(基)(础)(上)(提)(高)(5个)(百)(分)(点)(。  然)(而)(,今)(年)(年)(初)(辽)(宁)(社)(科)(院)(发)(布)(的)(蓝)(皮)(书)(显)(示)(,去)(年)(辽)(宁)(国)(有)(企)(业)(经)(济)(效)(益)(下)(滑)(,亏)(损)(企)(业)(面)(达)(50%左)(右)(。提)(高)(国)(企)(利)(润)(上)(缴)(比)(例)(是)(否)(会)(让)(辽)(宁)(国)(企)(雪)(上)(加)(霜)(?  国)(企)(红)(利)(上)(缴)(比)(例)(提)(高)(是)(把)(双)(刃)(剑)(  东)(北)(大)(学)(工)(商)(管)(理)(学)(院)(副)(教)(授)(郭)(德)(仁)(认)(为)(,这)(会)(使)(本)(来)(就)(很)(困)(难)(的)(辽)(宁)(国)(企)(再)(次)(遭)(遇)(紧)(缩)(的)(困)(扰)(。对)(于)(东)(北)(地)(区)(的)(企)(业)(应)(该)(与)(其)(他)(地)(区)(有)(区)(别)(地)(对)(待)(,比)(如)(暂)(缓)(执)(行)(该)(决)(定)(,这)(有)(助)(于)(振)(兴)(东)(北)(经)(济)(,缩)(小)(地)(区)(差)(距)(。该)(政)(策)(短)(期)(内)(会)(让)(省)(内)(的)(一)(些)(企)(业)(雪)(上)(加)(霜)(。  郭)(德)(仁)(介)(绍)(,辽)(宁)(省)(国)(企)(数)(量)(众)(多)(,大)(多)(是)(新)(中)(国)(成)(立)(初)(期)(国)(家)(投)(资)(建)(立)(的)(。如)(今)(大)(多)(设)(备)(陈)(旧)(老)(化)(,产)(业)(结)(构)(僵)(化)(,产)(品)(单)(一)(、技)(术)(落)(后)(,缺)(乏)(竞)(争)(力)(。大)(量)(资)(本)(滞)(存)(于)(落)(后)(企)(业)(内)(部)(,难)(以)(完)(成)(转)(移)(和)(优)(化)(,缺)(乏)(对)(市)(场)(的)(灵)(活)(应)(变)(能)(力)(。尤)(其)(在)(经)(济)(减)(速)(成)(为)(新)(常)(态)(的)(情)(况)(下)(,问)(题)(暴)(露)(得)(更)(突)(出)(了)(。主)(要)(问)(题)(有)(:产)(品)(销)(路)(不)(畅)(,库)(存)(积)(压)(,生)(产)(经)(营)(陷)(入)(困)(境)(;企)(业)(冗)(员)(多)(,退)(休)(职)(工)(多)(,社)(会)(负)(担)(、政)(策)(性)(负)(担)(沉)(重)(;债)(务)(多)(,资)(金)(紧)(张)(;企)(业)(亏)(损)(面)(广)(,亏)(损)(数)(量)(大)(;资)(本)(存)(量)(埋)(入)(过)(多)(、过)(深)(。2014年)(,辽)(宁)(、吉)(林)(、黑)(龙)(江)(3省)(的)(经)(济)(增)(速)(分)(别)(是)(5.8%、6.5%、5.6%,位)(列)(全)(国)(后)(5位)(之)(列)(,滑)(出)(经)(济)(合)(理)(区)(间)(。今)(年)(一)(季)(度)(,这)(3省)(的)(多)(项)(经)(济)(指)(标)(继)(续)(走)(低)(,经)(济)(下)(行)(压)(力)(进)(一)(步)(增)(大)(。而)(今)(年)(前)(两)(个)(月)(辽)(宁)(工)(业)(增)(加)(值)(为)(-4.5%。  “但)(是)(该)(政)(策)(也)(有)(积)(极)(意)(义)(。这)(样)(迫)(使)(企)(业)(必)(须)(作)(出)(变)(革)(,优)(化)(资)(产)(配)(置)(,积)(极)(开)(发)(新)(品)(,参)(与)(竞)(争)(,提)(升)(核)(心)(竞)(争)(力)(,提)(高)(企)(业)(效)(益)(,改)(善)(产)(业)(结)(构)(,淘)(汰)(落)(后)(产)(能)(,实)(现)(资)(源)(向)(优)(秀)(企)(业)(流)(动)(。同)(时)(借)(助)(于)(企)(业)(红)(利)(上)(缴)(比)(例)(提)(升)(的)(契)(机)(,地)(方)(政)(府)(可)(以)(集)(中)(优)(势)(资)(源)(扶)(植)(地)(方)(重)(大)(项)(目)(,发)(挥)(地)(方)(优)(势)(。所)(以)(其)(短)(期)(效)(果)(和)(长)(期)(效)(果)(是)(不)(一)(致)(的)(。国)(家)(应)(考)(虑)(不)(同)(地)(区)(、不)(同)(行)(业)(的)(不)(同)(特)(点)(差)(别)(对)(待)(,在)(上)(缴)(比)(例)(和)(推)(进)(时)(间)(上)(要)(有)(不)(同)(部)(署)(,发)(挥)(政)(策)(积)(极)(的)(一)(面)(,把)(可)(能)(的)(不)(利)(影)(响)(暂)(时)(降)(低)(到)(最)(小)(。”郭)(德)(仁)(说)(,这)(一)(政)(策)(不)(会)(影)(响)(企)(业)(的)(正)(常)(经)(营)(。因)(为)(上)(缴)(红)(利)(是)(税)(后)(利)(润)(,所)(以)(跟)(国)(有)(企)(业)(员)(工)(、高)(管)(收)(入)(也)(没)(有)(关)(系)(。但)(是)(对)(有)(些)(企)(业)(来)(说)(,职)(工)(的)(教)(育)(培)(训)(、福)(利)(等)(可)(能)(会)(受)(些)(影)(响)(。包)(括)(对)(企)(业)(的)(研)(发)(投)(资)(和)(市)(场)(营)(销)(及)(扩)(张)(,未)(来)(的)(发)(展)(模)(式)(、方)(向)(、规)(模)(都)(会)(产)(生)(一)(定)(影)(响)(,并)(在)(某)(种)(程)(度)(上)(改)(变)(企)(业)(的)(预)(期)(。  郭)(德)(仁)(建)(议)(,要)(避)(免)(走)(形)(式)(,搞)(过)(场)(。避)(免)(上)(有)(政)(策)(、下)(有)(对)(策)(的)(现)(象)(产)(生)(。在)(提)(高)(国)(有)(企)(业)(红)(利)(上)(缴)(比)(例)(的)(同)(时)(,也)(须)(防)(范)(部)(分)(国)(有)(企)(业)(提)(价)(,或)(者)(以)(次)(充)(好)(、偷)(工)(减)(料)(等)(,将)(提)(高)(上)(缴)(的)(利)(润)(转)(嫁)(到)(广)(大)(消)(费)(者)(头)(上)(。由)(于)(享)(有)(垄)(断)(经)(营)(特)(权)(,完)(成)(“转)(嫁)(”目)(的)(并)(非)(难)(事)(。如)(果)(真)(是)(这)(样)(,那)(么)(提)(高)(国)(有)(企)(业)(红)(利)(上)(缴)(比)(例)(的)(意)(义)(就)(要)(大)(打)(折)(扣)(,并)(间)(接)(导)(致)(消)(费)(者)(经)(济)(负)(担)(加)(重)(。所)(以)(,在)(稳)(步)(提)(高)(国)(有)(企)(业)(红)(利)(上)(缴)(比)(例)(的)(同)(时)(,还)(需)(严)(格)(控)(制)(垄)(断)(商)(品)(价)(格)(上)(涨)(。只)(有)(这)(样)(,提)(高)(国)(有)(企)(业)(润)(上)(缴)(比)(例)(的)(意)(义)(才)(能)(真)(正)(得)(到)(体)(现)(,广)(大)(民)(众)(才)(能)(真)(正)(从)(该)(项)(举)(措)(中)(得)(到)(实)(实)(在)(在)(的)(实)(惠)(。  辽)(宁)(社)(会)(科)(学)(院)(经)(济)(所)(副)(所)(长)(宋)(帅)(官)(介)(绍)(,国)(有)(企)(业)(是)(辽)(宁)(老)(工)(业)(基)(地)(的)(“大)(块)(头)(”,国)(有)(企)(业)(的)(改)(革)(、发)(展)(及)(经)(营)(状)(况)(,可)(以)(间)(接)(反)(映)(辽)(宁)(老)(工)(业)(基)(地)(发)(展)(的)(基)(本)(面)(。辽)(宁)(经)(济)(面)(临)(下)(行)(压)(力)(与)(国)(有)(企)(业)(经)(济)(效)(益)(下)(滑)(不)(无)(关)(系)(。辽)(宁)(国)(有)(经)(济)(布)(局)(仍)(偏)(重)(于)(重)(化)(工)(业)(,轻)(工)(业)(、服)(务)(业)(及)(战)(略)(性)(新)(兴)(产)(业)(布)(局)(偏)(轻)(。老)(工)(业)(基)(地)(振)(兴)(过)(程)(中)(解)(决)(了)(很)(多)(历)(史)(遗)(留)(问)(题)(,如)(困)(难)(企)(业)(退)(出)(、政)(企)(分)(开)(、企)(业)(办)(社)(会)(、转)(换)(经)(营)(方)(式)(等)(,但)(国)(有)(经)(济)(的)(战)(略)(布)(局)(和)(传)(统)(产)(业)(转)(型)(等)(方)(面)(没)(有)(得)(到)(根)(本)(解)(决)(,国)(有)(企)(业)(仍)(然)(依)(靠)(国)(家)(的)(特)(殊)(政)(策)(、能)(源)(资)(源)(优)(势)(、规)(模)(扩)(张)(等)(发)(展)(重)(化)(工)(业)(。例)(如)(辽)(宁)(除)(农)(产)(品)(加)(工)(业)(以)(外)(,各)(大)(支)(柱)(产)(业)(的)(龙)(头)(企)(业)(都)(是)(国)(有)(企)(业)(,其)(中)(冶)(金)(产)(业)(占)(70%左)(右)(,石)(化)(产)(业)(尤)(其)(是)(原)(油)(产)(业)(占)(90%左)(右)(,装)(备)(制)(造)(业)(更)(是)(国)(企)(云)(集)(,包)(括)(沈)(阳)(机)(床)(、北)(方)(重)(工)(、沈)(阳)(鼓)(风)(机)(、大)(连)(大)(起)(大)(重)(、华)(晨)(汽)(车)(、大)(连)(船)(舶)(等)(。所)(以)(,这)(样)(的)(产)(业)(布)(局)(很)(容)(易)(受)(到)(市)(场)(环)(境)(影)(响)(。  宋)(帅)(官)(分)(析)(,在)(以)(上)(辽)(宁)(国)(企)(大)(环)(境)(下)(,从)(省)(属)(或)(市)(属)(国)(有)(企)(业)(层)(面)(来)(看)(,利)(润)(上)(缴)(比)(例)(提)(高)(,影)(响)(应)(该)(不)(大)(,当)(前)(辽)(宁)(国)(有)(企)(业)(出)(现)(困)(难)(,地)(方)(政)(府)(可)(能)(会)(采)(取)(相)(关)(办)(法)(,上)(缴)(的)(这)(部)(分)(利)(润)(除)(一)(少)(部)(分)(用)(于)(一)(般)(性)(财)(政)(预)(算)(和)(社)(保)(资)(金)(之)(外)(,绝)(大)(多)(数)(都)(会)(因)(支)(付)(改)(革)(成)(本)(、科)(技)(创)(新)(、节)(能)(减)(排)(项)(目)(、改)(革)(脱)(困)(补)(助)(、国)(有)(经)(济)(及)(产)(业)(结)(构)(调)(整)(等)(重)(新)(回)(到)(企)(业)(内)(部)(。在)(不)(影)(响)(日)(常)(经)(营)(的)(情)(况)(下)(,国)(家)(股)(东)(按)(一)(定)(比)(例)(得)(到)(合)(理)(的)(分)(红)(,对)(国)(企)(员)(工)(和)(企)(业)(高)(管)(不)(会)(产)(生)(较)(大)(影)(响)(,企)(业)(内)(部)(有)(比)(较)(完)(善)(的)(利)(润)(分)(配)(机)(制)(,员)(工)(受)(《劳)(动)(合)(同)(法)(》的)(保)(护)(。所)(以)(,不)(会)(因)(为)(股)(东)(利)(益)(的)(重)(新)(分)(配)(轻)(易)(改)(变)(员)(工)(和)(高)(管)(的)(工)(资)(和)(薪)(酬)(。  倒)(逼)(国)(有)(企)(业)(节)(能)(降)(耗)(、提)(升)(效)(率)(  郭)(德)(仁)(表)(示)(,稳)(步)(提)(高)(国)(企)(利)(润)(上)(缴)(比)(例)(,有)(利)(于)(倒)(逼)(国)(有)(企)(业)(节)(能)(降)(耗)(、提)(高)(效)(率)(,也)(有)(利)(于)(减)(少)(国)(企)(奢)(侈)(浪)(费)(现)(象)(。企)(业)(利)(润)(上)(缴)(比)(例)(带)(来)(的)(收)(入)(可)(用)(于)(资)(助)(政)(府)(的)(社)(保)(和)(养)(老)(开)(支)(,从)(而)(缩)(小)(贫)(富)(差)(距)(,扩)(大)(消)(费)(支)(出)(,达)(到)(刺)(激)(需)(求)(、拉)(动)(经)(济)(的)(目)(的)(。另)(外)(,有)(利)(于)(改)(变)(过)(分)(依)(靠)(投)(资)(和)(出)(口)(拉)(动)(经)(济)(增)(长)(的)(模)(式)(。一)(些)(西)(方)(国)(家)(认)(为)(,中)(国)(的)(国)(有)(企)(业)(享)(受)(着)(利)(润)(留)(成)(的)(优)(厚)(待)(遇)(,就)(等)(于)(变)(相)(的)(财)(政)(补)(贴)(,在)(市)(场)(竞)(争)(中)(有)(失)(公)(平)(。这)(也)(是)(一)(些)(欧)(美)(国)(家)(不)(承)(认)(我)(国)(市)(场)(经)(济)(地)(位)(的)(原)(因)(之)(一)(。  他)(分)(析)(,虽)(然)(经)(历)(了)(多)(次)(改)(革)(,但)(是)(相)(对)(于)(国)(企)(使)(命)(及)(同)(国)(外)(性)(质)(相)(近)(的)(一)(些)(上)(市)(公)(司)(相)(比)(,目)(前)(我)(国)(国)(企)(上)(缴)(红)(利)(比)(例)(依)(然)(偏)(低)(。2013年)(央)(企)(上)(缴)(比)(例)(分)(五)(类)(,比)(例)(分)(别)(为)(20%、15%、10%、5%和)(暂)(不)(上)(缴)(。十)(八)(届)(三)(中)(全)(会)(决)(定)(,2020年)(前)(,国)(企)(红)(利)(上)(缴)(比)(例)(提)(高)(到)(30%。即)(在)(不)(影)(响)(继)(续)(经)(营)(的)(情)(况)(下)(,国)(家)(股)(东)(得)(到)(比)(较)(合)(理)(的)(分)(红)(,国)(有)(企)(业)(作)(为)(全)(民)(所)(有)(,在)(国)(家)(需)(要)(时)(,应)(该)(作)(出)(非)(常)(贡)(献)(,它)(的)(发)(展)(应)(该)(使)(全)(民)(受)(益)(,而)(不)(是)(少)(数)(经)(营)(者)(获)(益)(。因)(此)(适)(时)(提)(高)(国)(企)(利)(润)(上)(缴)(比)(例)(,符)(合)(国)(家)(和)(人)(民)(利)(益)(。  国)(企)(利)(润)(上)(缴)(比)(例)(提)(高)(,是)(一)(个)(动)(态)(过)(程)(,前)(提)(是)(不)(影)(响)(企)(业)(正)(常)(经)(营)(。从)(历)(史)(遗)(留)(问)(题)(和)(现)(实)(情)(况)(看)(,30%和)(5%是)(一)(个)(相)(对)(合)(理)(的)(标)(准)(。但)(是)(这)(个)(比)(例)(的)(确)(定)(,在)(不)(同)(时)(期)(应)(该)(有)(变)(化)(。在)(企)(业)(发)(展)(较)(好)(,效)(益)(较)(高)(时)(期)(,这)(一)(比)(例)(可)(以)(适)(当)(高)(一)(些)(,当)(经)(济)(增)(长)(乏)(力)(,企)(业)(自)(身)(陷)(于)(困)(境)(时)(可)(以)(调)(低)(一)(些)(。  宋)(帅)(官)(说)(,国)(企)(上)(缴)(红)(利)(从)(上)(世)(纪)(90年)(代)(就)(开)(始)(了)(,只)(是)(在)(这)(期)(间)(有)(部)(分)(年)(份)(国)(企)(出)(现)(经)(营)(困)(难)(,利)(润)(下)(降)(或)(亏)(损)(而)(没)(有)(上)(缴)(。这)(只)(是)(国)(家)(在)(特)(殊)(时)(期)(对)(国)(企)(实)(行)(的)(特)(殊)(政)(策)(,而)(不)(能)(认)(为)(是)(常)(态)(。从)(国)(家)(公)(共)(财)(政)(预)(算)(的)(角)(度)(来)(看)(,当)(前)(公)(共)(项)(目)(建)(设)(与)(社)(会)(保)(障)(事)(业)(发)(展)(急)(需)(大)(量)(资)(金)(,尤)(其)(是)(社)(会)(保)(障)(覆)(盖)(面)(有)(待)(扩)(大)(、保)(障)(水)(平)(有)(待)(提)(高)(。在)(这)(种)(背)(景)(下)(,稳)(步)(提)(高)(国)(有)(企)(业)(利)(润)(上)(缴)(比)(例)(,有)(利)(于)(增)(加)(国)(家)(发)(展)(公)(共)(项)(目)(与)(社)(会)(保)(障)(事)(业)(的)(资)(金)(数)(量)(,从)(而)(促)(进)(我)(国)(的)(公)(共)(建)(设)(与)(社)(会)(保)(障)(事)(业)(发)(展)(。最)(后)(,国)(企)(上)(缴)(一)(定)(比)(例)(的)(利)(润)(,在)(一)(定)(程)(度)(上)(可)(以)(促)(使)(国)(有)(企)(业)(加)(快)(改)(革)(和)(发)(展)(步)(伐)(。倒)(逼)(企)(业)(通)(过)(降)(低)(成)(本)(提)(高)(效)(率)(,进)(一)(步)(提)(高)(企)(业)(活)(力)(和)(市)(场)(竞)(争)(力)(。  在)(宋)(帅)(官)(看)(来)(,目)(前)(的)(上)(缴)(比)(例)(相)(对)(较)(低)(,不)(适)(应)(国)(有)(企)(业)(深)(化)(改)(革)(的)(需)(要)(。近)(年)(来)(加)(快)(提)(高)(国)(企)(利)(润)(上)(缴)(比)(例)(的)(呼)(声)(很)(大)(。比)(例)(上)(调)(后)(,根)(据)(行)(业)(不)(同)(,国)(有)(企)(业)(上)(缴)(利)(润)(占)(其)(利)(润)(比)(例)(分)(为)(五)(类)(:第)(一)(类)(为)(烟)(草)(类)(,中)(国)(烟)(草)(总)(公)(司)(,税)(后)(利)(润)(收)(取)(比)(例)(为)(25%;第)(二)(类)(为)(石)(油)(石)(化)(、电)(力)(、电)(信)(、煤)(炭)(等)(具)(有)(资)(源)(垄)(断)(特)(征)(的)(行)(业)(企)(业)(,收)(取)(比)(例)(20%;第)(三)(类)(为)(钢)(铁)(、运)(输)(、电)(子)(、贸)(易)(、施)(工)(等)(一)(般)(竞)(争)(性)(行)(业)(企)(业)(,收)(取)(比)(例)(15%;第)(四)(类)(为)(军)(工)(企)(业)(、转)(制)(科)(研)(院)(所)(、中)(国)(邮)(政)(集)(团)(公)(司)(、2011年)(和)(2012年)(新)(纳)(入)(中)(央)(国)(有)(资)(本)(经)(营)(预)(算)(实)(施)(范)(围)(的)(企)(业)(,收)(取)(比)(例)(10%;第)(五)(类)(为)(政)(策)(性)(公)(司)(,包)(括)(中)(国)(储)(备)(粮)(总)(公)(司)(、中)(国)(储)(备)(棉)(总)(公)(司)(,免)(交)(国)(有)(资)(本)(收)(益)(。在)(当)(前)(经)(济)(增)(速)(放)(缓)(,企)(业)(经)(营)(困)(难)(加)(剧)(,国)(内)(需)(求)(增)(长)(滞)(后)(情)(况)(下)(,国)(企)(上)(缴)(红)(利)(的)(步)(伐)(应)(该)(加)(快)(,而)(且)(从)(2014年)(国)(有)(企)(业)(经)(营)(状)(况)(来)(看)(,国)(有)(企)(业)(利)(润)(总)(额)(24765.4亿)(元)(,同)(比)(增)(长)(3.4%,提)(高)(国)(有)(企)(业)(利)(润)(上)(缴)(比)(例)(仍)(有)(一)(定)(空)(间)(。此)(次)(上)(调)(5%的)(幅)(度)(,是)(为)(达)(到)(预)(期)(目)(标)(进)(行)(的)(渐)(进)(式)(调)(整)(,这)(样)(的)(调)(整)(会)(给)(企)(业)(留)(出)(一)(定)(的)(缓)(冲)(期)(,让)(企)(业)(消)(化)(压)(力)(,比)(较)(符)(合)(实)(际)(。  国)(外)(国)(企)(上)(缴)(比)(例)(最)(高)(达)(80%~90%  郭)(德)(仁)(告)(诉)(记)(者)(,近)(年)(来)(央)(企)(利)(润)(不)(断)(增)(加)(,但)(上)(缴)(利)(润)(总)(额)(少)(且)(增)(幅)(缓)(慢)(,上)(缴)(比)(例)(总)(体)(上)(低)(于)(同)(期)(央)(企)(利)(润)(增)(幅)(。同)(类)(型)(央)(企)(上)(缴)(利)(润)(比)(例)(有)(所)(不)(同)(,但)(都)(低)(于)(“上)(市)(公)(司)(股)(东)(分)(红)(比)(例)(为)(税)(后)(可)(分)(配)(利)(润)(30%到)(40%间)(”这)(一)(国)(际)(惯)(例)(。而)(丹)(麦)(、芬)(兰)(、法)(国)(、德)(国)(、新)(西)(兰)(、瑞)(典)(、韩)(国)(、挪)(威)(等)(的)(国)(家)(企)(业)(,他)(们)(上)(缴)(比)(例)(最)(高)(的)(达)(80%~90%。我)(国)(从)(央)(企)(利)(润)(的)(使)(用)(情)(况)(看)(,大)(部)(分)(红)(利)(仍)(在)(国)(企)(内)(部)(流)(动)(,极)(少)(用)(于)(公)(共)(财)(政)(和)(改)(善)(民)(生)(方)(面)(。央)(企)(利)(润)(不)(断)(增)(加)(,具)(备)(了)(让)(全)(民)(共)(享)(改)(革)(发)(展)(成)(果)(的)(可)(能)(。国)(家)(应)(制)(定)(合)(理)(的)(分)(配)(政)(策)(,既)(保)(证)(央)(企)(自)(身)(的)(发)(展)(,又)(促)(进)(国)(家)(财)(政)(收)(入)(稳)(步)(增)(长)(和)(人)(民)(生)(活)(水)(平)(的)(提)(高)(。  利)(润)(上)(缴)(比)(例)(提)(高)(会)(形)(成)(倒)(逼)(国)(企)(改)(革)(的)(力)(量)(,会)(促)(进)(企)(业)(加)(强)(成)(本)(核)(算)(,改)(善)(投)(资)(结)(构)(,优)(化)(资)(源)(配)(置)(,进)(一)(步)(提)(高)(企)(业)(经)(营)(管)(理)(水)(平)(,更)(加)(注)(重)(提)(高)(效)(率)(和)(经)(济)(效)(益)(。过)(去)(由)(于)(资)(本)(收)(益)(较)(高)(,一)(些)(企)(业)(盲)(目)(投)(资)(,不)(太)(注)(重)(实)(效)(。在)(上)(缴)(利)(润)(比)(例)(提)(高)(的)(前)(提)(下)(,国)(企)(应)(该)(谨)(慎)(了)(。如)(何)(增)(加)(收)(益)(,如)(何)(调)(整)(资)(源)(配)(置)(,企)(业)(会)(更)(加)(精)(打)(细)(算)(。  宋)(帅)(官)(认)(为)(,按)(国)(际)(惯)(例)(,上)(市)(公)(司)(股)(东)(分)(红)(比)(例)(为)(税)(后)(可)(分)(配)(利)(润)(的)(30%到)(40%。国)(有)(资)(本)(向)(国)(家)(上)(缴)(盈)(利)(普)(遍)(高)(于)(这)(个)(水)(平)(,不)(论)(什)(么)(机)(构)(担)(任)(国)(有)(股)(东)(的)(代)(表)(,都)(要)(求)(将)(国)(企)(红)(利)(转)(给)(财)(政)(部)(门)(,用)(于)(公)(共)(支)(出)(。新)(西)(兰)(、英)(国)(、法)(国)(、德)(国)(、韩)(国)(、新)(加)(坡)(等)(都)(是)(如)(此)(。但)(不)(同)(国)(家)(的)(国)(企)(分)(红)(政)(策)(差)(别)(很)(大)(。如)(新)(西)(兰)(根)(据)(国)(有)(企)(业)(的)(资)(本)(结)(构)(、未)(来)(投)(资)(计)(划)(和)(盈)(利)(前)(景)(等)(来)(制)(定)(分)(红)(计)(划)(;新)(加)(坡)(国)(有)(企)(业)(分)(红)(主)(要)(考)(虑)(现)(金)(流)(,分)(红)(水)(平)(高)(的)(达)(到)(盈)(利)(的)(80%~90%,一)(般)(为)(盈)(利)(的)(30%~60%。英)(国)(国)(家)(电)(网)(公)(司)(每)(年)(的)(上)(缴)(比)(例)(在)(70%~80%。中)(国)(不)(能)(照)(搬)(国)(外)(的)(做)(法)(,但)(从)(长)(远)(来)(看)(,部)(分)(国)(有)(企)(业)(上)(缴)(比)(例)(还)(有)(上)(调)(空)(间)(。30%的)(比)(例)(不)(是)(上)(限)(,也)(不)(是)(最)(终)(目)(标)(。  宋)(帅)(官)(表)(示)(,利)(润)(上)(缴)(比)(例)(其)(实)(是)(一)(把)(“双)(刃)(剑)(”,若)(在)(恰)(当)(时)(机)(提)(高)(比)(例)(,从)(微)(观)(层)(面)(来)(看)(可)(以)(促)(使)(企)(业)(降)(低)(成)(本)(,提)(高)(效)(率)(,优)(化)(营)(利)(模)(式)(。从)(宏)(观)(层)(面)(来)(看)(,国)(家)(可)(以)(利)(用)(这)(部)(分)(红)(利)(去)(优)(化)(国)(有)(资)(本)(配)(置)(,淘)(汰)(落)(后)(产)(能)(,培)(育)(先)(进)(产)(业)(。若)(上)(缴)(比)(例)(提)(高)(过)(快)(过)(高)(,会)(增)(加)(企)(业)(负)(担)(,不)(利)(于)(实)(现)(可)(持)(续)(发)(展)(。过)(低)(过)(慢)(,也)(会)(容)(易)(导)(致)(国)(有)(经)(济)(比)(重)(过)(大)(,削)(弱)(企)(业)(竞)(争)(力)(。
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